Selasa, 20 Mei 2008

letusan ke bawah

MFRI building after the tornado

The remains of the MFRI building
Until 2001 September 24 we tended to look on tornado watch warnings as an exciting possibility to see something dramatic but harmless: after all, tornados never touch down in suburban Maryland. That all changed when an F3 tornado with winds close to 200 mph ("solid" F3) touched down at about 5:30 pm on a hill on the University of Maryland campus, beside the University President's residence and just behind the portable building temporarily then housing the Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute MFRI) headquarters, where my wife Ann Harris Davidson then worked.

Tornado and Rainbow Over Kansas

Tornado and Rainbow Over Kansas

Mini tornado as storms hit Britain

mini tornado appeared as extreme weather battered the Midlands and the North of England.

Weathermen said witnesses had seen a funnel cloud – essentially a minitornado which does not touch the ground – sweep across fields just north of Telford, Shropshire, at about 7pm.

The image (left) was taken by Rob Brown and IT consultant Steve Hughes, of Wellington, Shropshire, who were travelling through the area.

beautiful tornado

Rabu, 14 Mei 2008

tsunami damages

Tsunami destroyed village, pools of water remain

tsunami effects

Hotel lobby flooded, car floats among debris

Tsunamis -- giant waves triggered by earthquakes and volcanoes -- can't be prevented and they can't be predicted. The only protection for a growing coastal population is a warning to evacuate.

A series of Pacific Ocean tsunamis over the last century fueled the establishment of an ocean-wide warning network. But the Indian Ocean, where tsunamis are less common, has no such system. So when earthquake specialists in the United States and elsewhere saw the first signal of the giant Dec. 26 quake, they had no way of knowing whether a tsunami was under way. And even if they had known about the tsunami, they had no way to alert coastal communities that titanic waves were racing at them -- as fast as a jet plane.

sumatra tsunami hitting koh fu, thailand

Sumatra tsunami hitting Koh Pu, Thailand

tsunami in gaza

While the whole world had sent aid to the tsunami-hit South East Asia, Israel forwarded a team entrusted with unique task. Not many Israeli tourists were swept away by the giant waves – official death toll stands at three, with some twenty missing; not many comparing with hundred thousand Indonesians or even with three thousand Swedes. Still the Israeli teams were very active on the ground. The highly trained experts led by Rabbi Meshi Zahav did not go to save trapped survivors or alleviate suffering of millions; their job was to save dead Jews from fate worse than death – that is to be buried with the goyim in the same grave. The Haaretz daily[i] reported: “The Israeli rescue teams in Thailand split up Thursday: one team worked on identifying bodies in Krabi, while another worked on the same task in Phuket. The Israeli crews - from the police and Zaka (a non-profit group that specializes in identifying victims of disasters) - are trying to locate dead Israelis before they are buried”.

They pressed upon the Thai government to postpone the mass entombment, though it was necessary to prevent spread of epidemics; and Bangkok gave in. Every dead Jewish body should be taken to Israel, or at least buried separately from impure non-Jews. Witty Gilad Atzmon remarked: “the ‘altruistic’ Jews … are in a state of panic, as we all know, dead Jews are precious, they deserve a special burial. The fact that 5-10 Jews might be lost forever among some other 125.000 gentiles is pretty horrifying, I am sure you can see it.”

This is a part and parcel of Jewish faith, the pinnacle of “The Nation Shall Dwell Alone” commandment – Jews are not supposed to live or to die with non-Jews. Their separate burial is necessary to guarantee their bodily resurrection when Messiah comes. A Jewish body defiled by gentile proximity won’t be resurrected, according to the Jews. Even irreligious Jews follow this separation rule without giving it a second thought.

This squeamish attitude is particularly unpleasant: whenever the Jews discover that a person of doubtful Jewishness is buried among their lot they remove the body and dump it elsewhere. It happened to an Israeli citizen Teresa Angelowitz. She was buried in the Jewish cemetery; later on the religious authorities discovered that she was a wife of a Jew, but not a Jew. They exhumed her body at the dark of the night and re-buried on the dumping ground. It happened to many Russian soldiers who died defending the Jewish character of Israel and were refused the burial. Now, in face of the huge tragedy in South East Asia, this insistence of ‘not being counted among the goyim” is especially offensive, bordering on denial of our common humanity. What is so bad about Thais, French, Chinese and other people who found their death in the catastrophe that you can’t leave your dead lying next to them?

This nasty exclusiveness has to be taken into account while trying to comprehend the long-running show of Israeli redeployment in Gaza. Sharon’s government wants to withdraw its troops from within the strip to its perimeter. Fine and good: this is a reasonable (from his point of view) decision: it is cheaper to keep Gaza under lock and key, surrounded by Israeli troops. The redeployment is not good neither bad for the Palestinians – the Jews will be able to kill whoever they wish from their bases outside the narrow strip, but this act is presented as an important step on the way to creation of a Palestinian state.

Now, instead of redeployment, Israelis discuss the fate of some (probably two thousand) Jewish settlers in Gaza strip. Sharon wants to evacuate them and pay them hefty compensation; they object to evacuation. The whole Israeli society discusses whether they can be removed; how much force should be applied; whether ‘Jews may remove Jews’; whether the ruling of the Rabbis forbidding the evacuation takes precedence over the government decision.

Nobody, but absolutely nobody is ready to consider an obvious (for a non-Jew) solution: remove the army and leave the settlers where they are. If they want to stay in Gaza, let them. Do not pay a penny for their removal: they are free men and women; they knew what they did when they accepted the lands and houses in Gaza. There are hundreds of American Jews who want to buy their houses, there are Palestinians who will be willing to buy – so there is no problem, whoever wants stays, whoever wants to leave sells his house and leaves. If they will be nasty to their neighbours, they will flee; if they will be good neighbours, they will flourish.

Indeed, when the British Empire left Palestine, or India, or Africa, they did not evacuate their citizens by force. Whoever felt that he caused too much grief to the natives, left for England; whoever preferred to stay – stayed.

Kenya is a good case to consider. The country had a sizeable English settler community; there was also very active Mau-Mau native resistance, much more violent than the Palestinian; still, when Kenya was granted independence, the settlers stayed. I have met them in the Highlands near Lake Rudolf: prosperous farmers, strong and sunburned, similar to old-style Israelis, they speak local language, are involved in local life. Many of them have their small airplanes and pop into Nairobi for an evening drink whenever they get tired from watching pink flamingos at the lakeside. The settlers try to be good neighbours to the native people – after all, the political power in hands of native Kikuyu; and RAF is not likely to defend them.

This is the example for the Israeli settlers to emulate, while the Israeli government should not tell them what to do and where to live. Their settlements won’t be ‘for Jews only’. They will have native neighbours, not only farm hands, but native officials, native police and native judges – but this consideration did not stop thousands of Brits and French, Portuguese and Spaniards, Russians and Germans to remain in the newly independent countries. The evacuation discourse that brought Israel to the verge of civil war can’t be comprehended outside of the general nasty picture of Jewish exclusiveness.

Only people, who can’t bear the thought of being buried in one grave with a goy, can’t imagine the possibility of staying as equals without the army and colonial administration to enforce their superiority. Azmi Bishara, our MP from Nazareth, was right when he refused to support Sharon’s initiative; while the Labour party of Peres and Barak added another shameful deed to its long roll of shame when they joined Sharon’s government to carry on the ‘disengagement’. The case of the Gaza settlers may be used to undermine and destroy the “Jewish character of the state”. There is no reason to play into the game of Jewish exclusivity, whether in Thailand or in Gaza.

fotos del tsunami

akhirnya meletus juga

proses meletusx gunung kelud

Surabaya - Gunung Kelud masih tenang. Namun di balik ketenanganya itu menimbulkan sejuta misteri. Jika melihat gejala-gejala yang terjadi seharusnya sudah meletus. Namun kenyataannya belum juga meletus.

Pada tahun 1991, tak lama ditetapkan status awas, Gunung Kelud pun meletus dan menewaskan 32 jiwa. Tapi sekarang? Semua orang bertanya-tanya? Kenapa tak jua meletus, padahal aktivitas yang terjadi sudah melebih persyaratan untuk meletus.

Inilah data perjalanan status Gunung Kelud dan kawasan yang rawan menjadi amukannya yang dihimpun.

Minggu (9/9/2007)
Larung Sesaji warga dan tokoh masyarakat serta Muspida Kediri untuk mencegah bencana

Senin (10/9/2007)
Status Gunung Kelud Aktif Normal (Level 1) ke Waspada (Level II). Sehari gempa vulkanik 16 x. Suhu Kawah 33 derajat celcius. Kadar CO2 menjadi 340 ton/hari. Warna air kawah kuning keruh. Suhu udara 33 derajat celcius.

Kamis (27/9/2007)
Pukul 00.00 s/d 09.00 gempa vulkanik sebanyak 10 kali. Sebelumnya 4-5 kali sehari. Suhu danau kawah 36,5 derajat celcius di kedalaman 15 meter. Air danau kawah berwarna putih. Kadar CO2 344 ton/hari.

Status meningkat dari Waspada (level II) ke Siaga (level III). Air danau kawah putih. Pukul 00.00 hingga 18.00 gempa vulkanik dalam 5 kali, gempa tektonik jauh 4 kali, gempa skala kecil 3 kali, suhu permukaan danau kawah 36,2 derajat celcius.

Selasa (16/10/2007)
Status dinaikan dari Siaga (Level III) ke Awas (Level IV) pukul 17.25. Kawasan Rawan Bahaya (KRB) I Radius 10 kilometer dari kawah harus bebas dari warga.

Kamis (18/10/2007)
Pukul 00.00 s/d 06.00 gempa tremor 6 kali, gempa tektonik dangkal 16 kali, suhu danau kawah 37,7 derajat celcius di kedalaman 15 meter, 37,1 derajat celcius pada kedalaman 10 meter, dan 37 derajat celcius pada suhu permukaan. Sejak pukul 07.30 WIB, 86 kali kegempaan tiap satu jam. Suhu kawah di kedalaman 15 meter 38 derajat celcius.

Jumat (19/10/2007)
Sekitar pukul 15.20 WIB memasuki detik-detik menegangkan ditandai gempa tremor terus menerus. Awan putih muncul di atas kawah. Puncak kritis selama 55 menit menimbulkan kepanikan.

Suhu kedalaman kawah 5 meter 35,6 derajat celcius, 10 meter 37,4 derajat celcius dan 15 meter mencapai 38, 1 derajat celcius. Tercatat 5 kali gempa vulkanik dangkal, 1 kali gempa tektonik jauh. Berapa kali gempa tremor antara pukul 15.00 hingga 15.50 WIB.

Sabtu (20/10/2007)
Pukul 06.00 hingga 12.00 WIB gempa tremor 3 kali, gempa tektonik dangkal menyebabkan rekahan magma kian mendekat ke permukaan kawah. Suhu air kawah di kedalaman 15 meter 38,1 derajat celcius.

Minggu (21/10/2007)
Pukul 00.00 s/d 06.00 gempa tremor 5 kali. Gempa tektonik lokal, gempa tektonik jauh masing-masing 1 kali. Suhu kawah 38,2 derajat celcius kedalaman 15 meter, 37,4 derajat celcius pada kedalaman 10 meter dan 35,5 derajat celcius pada suhu di permukaan.

Senin (22/10/2007)
Temperatur air danau kawah dan geoformasi kawah terus naik. Pukul 00.00- 18.00, 3 x gempa vulkanik dangkal, 11 x tremor dan sekali gempa tektonik lokal. 7 x gempa tektonik jauh, termasuk gempa berskala 5,4 SR yang dirasakan di Blitar pukul 06.40.

Gempa 5,4 SR berpusat di kedalaman 10 km di 8,86 derajat LS dan 111,4 derajat BT atau 115 km di barat daya Blitar. Suhu air danau kawah pada kedalaman 15 meter naik 0,1 dari hari sebelumnya menjadi 38,3 derajat Celcius. Di permukaan suhu air danau kawah 35,8 derajat Celcius. Pada kedalaman 10 meter suhu mnecapai 37,5 derajat Celcius.

Sedangkan untuk daerah rawan bahaya Gunung Kelud terdiri dari:

Kabupaten Kediri
Di empat kecamatan adalah Kecamatan Ngancar, Plosoklaten, Kepung dan Puncu. Di Kecamatan Ngancar ada empat desa yang terancam. Masing-masing Sugihwaras, Sanding, Babadan dan Sempu.

Daerah ini merupakan Kawasan Rawan Bahaya (KRB) Ring I. Karena lokasinya dalam radius 10 kilometer dari titik danau kawah Gunung Kelud. Jumlah penduduk di Ngancar 5.837 jiwa

Kecamatan Plosoklaten hanya ada satu desa yang terancam, yaitu Desa Sepawon. Jumlah penduduknya di kecamatan ini 5.681 jiwa. Namun sebenarnya ada 4 desa lagi.

Kecamatan Puncu, yang terancam Desa Puncu, Sumberejo dan Sonorejo.Jumlah penduduknya di kecamatan ini 6.686 jiwa.

Kecamatan Kepung, yang terancam Desa Kebonrejo, Kebunduren dan Besowo. Jumlah jiwanya ditaksir mencapai 8.000 jiwa.

Kabupaten Blitar
Titik lokasi pengungsian di Kecamatan Garum, Gandusari dan Nglegok. Daerah ini tergolong KRB II, berjarak kurang dari 10 kilometer dari Gunung Kelud. Jumlah penduduk di kawasan KRB II sebanyak 90.642 jiwa. Daerah ini rawan terkena langsung muntahan lahar serta material seperti batu, abu maupun awan panas.

Di KRB III dengan jarak 7 -10 Km) terdapat 160.988 jiwa dari 8 Kecamatan.Yakni Kecamatan Ponggok, Srengat, Wonodadi, Udanawu, Kanigoro, Talun dan Wlingi.
Kawasan ini terbebas dari sedimen Kelud. Tetapi terancam luapan aliran lahar panas maupun dingin. Karena aliran lahar dari puncak Kelud diperkirakan bisa mencapai kawasan ini dalam waktu dua jam. Pemkab mengalokasikan dana penanganan Rp 10 miliar.

Kabupaten Malang
Satlak PB Kabupaten Malang menetapkan delapan titik evakuasi. Tempat evakuasi adalah seluruh balai desa yang termasuk dalam KRB I.

Delapan desa yang masuk KRB I adalah: Kecamatan Ngantang: Desa Pandan Sari, Banturejo, Ngantru, Sidodadi dan Desa Margersari. Kecamatan Kasembon adalah Desa Pondok Agung, Bayem dan Sukosari. Pemkab mengalokasikan dana untuk penangangan bencana Rp 3,5 miliar.


gunung meletus

tornado fusion

penyebab tsunami karena gunung meletus?

Tsunami (bahasa Jepang: 津波; secara harafiah berarti "ombak besar di pelabuhan") adalah sebuah ombak yang terjadi setelah sebuah gempa bumi, gempa laut, gunung berapi meletus, atau hantaman meteor di laut. Tenaga setiap tsunami adalah tetap terhadap fungsi ketinggian dan kelajuannya. Dengan itu, apabila gelombang menghampiri pantai, ketinggiannya meningkat sementara kelajuannya menurun. Gelombang tersebut bergerak pada kelajuan tinggi, hampir tidak dapat dirasakan efeknya oleh kapal laut (misalnya) saat melintasi di laut dalam, tetapi meningkat ketinggian hingga mencapai 30 meter atau lebih di daerah pantai. Tsunami bisa menyebabkan kerusakan erosi dan korban jiwa pada kawasan pesisir pantai dan kepulauan.
Dampak negatif yang diakibatkan tsunami adalah merusak apa saja yang dilaluinya. Bangunan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, dan mengakibatkan korban jiwa manusia serta menyebabkan genangan, pencemaran air asin lahan pertanian, tanah, dan air bersih.
Kebanyakan kota di sekitar Samudra Pasifik, terutama di Jepang juga di Hawaii, mempunyai sistem peringatan dan prosedur pengungsian sekiranya tsunami diramalkan akan terjadi. Tsunami akan diamati oleh pelbagai institusi seismologi sekeliling dunia dan perkembangannya dipantau melalui satelit.
Bukti menunjukkan tidak mustahil terjadinya megatsunami, yang menyebabkan beberapa pulau tenggelam.

gunung krakatau 2

Krakatau adalah gunung berapi yang masih aktif dan berada di Selat Sunda antara pulau Jawa dan Sumatra. Gunung berapi ini pernah meletus pada tanggal 26 Agustus 1883. Letusannya sangat dahsyat dan tsunami yang diakibatkannya menewaskan sekitar 36.000 jiwa. Sampai tanggal 26 Desember 2004, tsunami ini adalah yang terdahsyat. Suara letusan Gunung Krakatau sampai terdengar di Alice Springs, Australia dan pulau Rodrigues dekat Afrika, 4.653 kilometer. Daya ledaknya diperkirakan mencapai 30.000 kali dari bom atom yang meledak di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki di akhir Perang Dunia II.
Letusan Krakatau menyebabkan perubahan iklim global. Dunia sempat gelap selama dua setengah hari akibat debu vulkanis yang menutupi
atmosfer. Matahari bersinar redup sampai setahun berikutnya. Hamburan debu tampak di langit Norwegia hingga New York.
Ledakan Krakatau ini sebenarnya masih kalah dibandingkan dengan letusan
Gunung Toba dan Gunung Tambora di Indonesia, Gunung Tanpo di Selandia Baru dan Gunung Katmal di Alaska. Namun gunung-gunung tersebut meletus jauh di masa populasi manusia masih sangat sedikit. Sementara ketika Gunung Krakatau meletus, populasi manusia sudah cukup padat, sains dan teknologi telah berkembang, telegraf sudah ditemukan, dan kabel bawah laut sudah dipasang. Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa saat itu teknologi informasi sedang tumbuh dan berkembang pesat.
Tercatat bahwa letusan Gunung Krakatau adalah bencana besar pertama di dunia setelah penemuan telegraf bawah laut. Kemajuan tersebut, sayangnya belum diimbangi dengan kemajuan di bidang geologi. Para ahli geologi saat itu bahkan belum mampu memberikan penjelasan mengenai letusan tersebut.
Melihat kawasan Gunung Krakatau di Selat Sunda, para ahli memperkirakan bahwa pada masa purba terdapat gunung yang sangat besar di Selat Sunda yang akhirnya meletus dahsyat yang menyisakan sebuah kaldera (kawah besar) yang disebut Gunung Krakatau Purba, yang merupakan induk dari Gunung Krakatau yang meletus pada 1883. Gunung ini disusun dari bebatuan
Catatan mengenai letusan Krakatau Purba yang diambil dari sebuah teks
Jawa Kuno yang berjudul Pustaka Raja Parwa yang diperkirakan berasal dari tahun 416 Masehi. Isinya antara lain menyatakan:
"Ada suara guntur yang menggelegar berasal dari Gunung Batuwara. Ada pula goncangan bumi yang menakutkan, kegelapan total, petir dan kilat. Kemudian datanglah badai angin dan hujan yang mengerikan dan seluruh badai menggelapkan seluruh dunia. Sebuah banjir besar datang dari Gunung Batuwara dan mengalir ke timur menuju Gunung Kamula.... Ketika air menenggelamkannya, pulau Jawa terpisah menjadi dua, menciptakan pulau Sumatera"

Pakar geologi B.G. Escher dan beberapa ahli lainnya berpendapat bahwa kejadian alam yang diceritakan berasal dari Gunung Krakatau Purba, yang dalam teks tersebut disebut Gunung Batuwara. Menurut buku Pustaka Raja Parwa tersebut, tinggi Krakatau Purba ini mencapai 2.000 meter di atas permukaan laut, dan lingkaran pantainya mencapai 11 kilometer.
Akibat ledakan yang hebat itu, tiga perempat tubuh Krakatau Purba hancur menyisakan kaldera (kawah besar) di Selat Sunda. Sisi-sisi atau tepi kawahnya dikenal sebagai
Pulau Rakata, Pulau Panjang dan Pulau Sertung, dalam catatan lain disebut sebagai Pulau Rakata, Pulau Rakata Kecil dan Pulau Sertung. Letusan gunung ini disinyalir bertanggung- jawab atas terjadinya abad kegelapan di muka bumi. Penyakit sampar bubonic terjadi karena temperatur mendingin. Sampar ini secara signifikan mengurangi jumlah penduduk di muka bumi.
Letusan ini juga dianggap turut andil atas berakhirnya masa kejayaan Persia purba, transmutasi Kerajaan Romawi ke Kerajaan Byzantium, berakhirnya peradaban Arabia Selatan, punahnya kota besar Maya, Tikal dan jatuhnya peradaban Nazca di Amerika Selatan yang penuh teka-teki. Ledakan Krakatau Purba diperkirakan berlangsung selama 10 hari dengan perkiraan kecepatan muntahan massa mencapai 1 juta ton per detik. Ledakan tersebut telah membentuk perisai atmosfer setebal 20-150 meter, menurunkan temperatur sebesar 5-10 derajat selama 10-20 tahun.
Pulau Rakata, yang merupakan satu dari tiga pulau sisa Gunung Krakatau Purba kemudian tumbuh sesuai dengan dorongan vulkanik dari dalam perut bumi yang dikenal sebagai Gunung
Rakata yang terbuat dari batuan basaltik. Kemudian, dua gunung api muncul dari tengah kawah, bernama Gunung Danan dan Gunung Perbuwatan yang kemudian menyatu dengan Gunung Rakata yang muncul terlebih dahulu. Persatuan ketiga gunung api inilah yang disebut Gunung Krakatau.
Gunung Krakatau pernah meletus pada tahun 1680 menghasilkan
lava andesitik asam. Lalu pada tahun 1880, Gunung Perbuwatan aktif mengeluarkan lava meskipun tidak meletus. Setelah masa itu, tidak ada lagi aktivitas vulkanis di Krakatau hingga 20 Mei 1883. Pada hari itu, setelah 200 tahun tertidur, terjadi ledakan kecil pada Gunung Krakatau. Itulah tanda-tanda awal bakal terjadinya letusan dahsyat di Selat Sunda. Ledakan kecil ini kemudian disusul dengan letusan-letusan kecil yang puncaknya terjadi pada 26-28 Agustus 1883.
Pada hari Senin, 27 Agustus 1883, tepat jam 10.20, meledaklah gunung itu. Menurut Simon Winchester, ahli geologi lulusan Universitas Oxford Inggris yang juga penulis National Geoghrapic mengatakan bahwa ledakan itu adalah yang paling besar, suara paling keras dan peristiwa vulkanik yang paling meluluh-lantakkan dalam sejarah manusia moderen. Suara letusannya terdengar sampai 4.600 km dari pusat letusan dan bahkan dapat didengar oleh 1/8 peduduk bumi saat itu.

Menurut para peneliti di University of North Dakota, ledakan Krakatau bersama Tambora (1815) mencatatkan nilai Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) terbesar dalam sejarah modern. Sedangkan buku The Guiness Book of Records mencatat ledakan Krakatau sebagai ledakan yang paling hebat yang terekam dalam sejarah.
Selain itu, ledakan Krakatau telah melemparkan batu-batu apung dan abu vulkanik dengan volume 18 kilometer kubik. Semburan debu vulkanisnya mencavai 80 km. Benda-benda keras yang berhamburan ke udara itu jatuh di dataran pulau Jawa dan Sumatera bahkan sampai ke
Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Australia dan Selandia Baru.
Akibat letusan itu menghancurkan Gunung Danan, Gunung Perbuwatan serta sebagian Gunung
Rakata dimana setengah kerucutnya hilang, membuat cekungan selebar 7 km dan sedalam 250 meter. Gelombang laut naik setinggi 40 meter menghancurkan desa-desa dan apa saja yang berada di pesisir pantai. Tsunami ini timbul bukan hanya karena letusan tetapi juga longsoran bawah laut.
Tercatat jumlah korban yang tewas mencapai 36.417 orang berasal dari 295 kampung kawasan pantai mulai dari
Merak (Serang) hingga Cilamaya di Karawang, pantai barat Banten hingga Tanjung layar di Pulai Panaitan (Ujung Kulon serta Sumatera Bagian selatan. Di Ujungkulon, air bah masuk sampai 15 km ke arah barat. Keesokan harinya sampai beberapa hari kemudian, penduduk Jakarta dan Lampung pedalaman tidak lagi melihat matahari. Gelombang Tsunami yang ditimbulkan bahkan merambat hingga ke pantai Hawaii, pantai barat Amerika Tengah dan Semenanjung Arab yang jauhnya 7 ribu kilometer.

Mulai pada tahun 1927 atau kurang lebih 40 tahun setelah meletusnya Gunung Kakatau, muncul gunung api yang dikenal sebagai Anak Krakatau dari kawasan kaldera purba tersebut yang masih aktif dan tetap bertambah tingginya. Kecepatan pertumbuhan tingginya selitar 20 inchi per bulan. Setiap tahun ia menjadi lebih tinggi sekitar 20 kaki dan lebih lebar 40 kaki. Catatan lain menyebutkan penambahan tiggi sekitar 4 cm per tahun dan jika dihitu, maka dalam waktu 25 tahun penambahan tinggi anak rakata mencapai 7.500 inchi atau 500 kaki lebih tinggi dari 25 tahun sebelumnya. Penyebab tingginya gunung itu disebabkan oleh material yang keluar dari perut gunung baru itu. Saat ini ketinggian Anak Krakatau mencapai sekitar 230 meter di atas permukaan laut, sementara Gunung Krakatau sebelumnya memiliki tinggi 813 meter dari permukaan laut.
Menurut Simon Winchester, sekalipun apa yang terjadi dalam kehidupan Krakatau yang dulu sangat menakutkan, realita-realita geologi, seismik serta tektonik di Jawa dan Sumatera yang aneh akan memastikan bahwa apa yang dulu terjadi pada suatu ketika akan terjadi kembali. Tak ada yang tahu pasti kapan Anak Krakatau akan meletus. Beberapa ahli geologi memprediksi letusan in bakal terjadi antara 2015-2083. Namun pengaruh dari gempa di dasar Samudera Hindia pada 26 Desember 2004 juga tidak bisa diabaikan.
Menurut Profesor
Ueda Nakayama salah seorang ahli gunung api berkebangsaan Jepang, Anak Krakatau masih relatif aman meski aktif dan sering ada letusan kecil, hanya ada saat-saat tertentu para turis dilarang mendekati kawasan ini karena bahaya lava pijar yang dimuntahkan gunung api ini. Para pakar lain menyatakan tidak ada teori yang masuk akal tentang Anak Krakatau yang akan kembali meletus. Kalaupun ada minimal 3 abad lagi atau sesudah 2325 M. Namun yang jelas, angka korban yang ditimbulkan lebih dahsyat dari letusan sebelumnya.

gunung krakatau

Tiga bulan sebelum gunung Krakatau meletus pada 27 Agustus 1883, sebuah kapal pesiar Elizabeth mengumumkan rencana perjalanan wisata ke Gunung Krakatau. Pengumuman ini langsung disambut para bangsawan Eropa yang ada di Batavia, Bogor, dan Jawa Tengah untuk menyaksikan fenomena alam gunung yang berada di Selat Sunda tersebut. Sebanyak 86 tiket seharga 25 guilder langsung habis untuk keberangkatan wisata yang berlangsung pada 26 Mei 1883 tersebut.

Ketertarikan para turis asing ini karena keingintahuan mereka pada gunung Krakatau. Diketuhui, sebelum kapal wisata tersebut berlayar, Krakatau sudah mengalami 2 kali letusan yang cukup dahsyat sepanjang Mei 1883.

Pada 9 Mei 1883, atau 17 hari sebelum perjalanan wisata tersebut, Krakatau mengeluarkan letusan yang maha dahsyat. Bahkan getarannya hingga terasa menggoyangkan mercusuar yang ada di tepi Pantai Anyer. Seorang petugas pemantau saat itu mengabarkan, bahwa kepulan asap dan debu yang keluar dari Krakatau mencapai 11.000 meter.
Letusan ini berlanjut hingga sepekan sebelum keberangkatan Elizabeth. Seorang pendeta yang sedang berlayar melintasi Selat Sunda menyaksikan letusan itu dan mencatatkan kejadian ini dengan sebuah prosa menarik. Pendeta itu mendefinisikan kepulan asap disertai debu yang keluar dari Krakatau saat itu bagaikan bunga kol yang menggumpal di sebuah puncak pegunungan yang hijau.

Dua peristiwa yang berlangsung sepanjang Mei tersebut ternyata menjadi daya tarik orang-orang untuk mengunjungi Krakatau. Walau tak sempat melepas sauh hingga ke tepi Krakatu, Elizabeth menyediakan perahu kecil bagi wisatawan yang hendak menjejakkan kakinya ke tanah Krakatau. Demikianlah Simon Winchester yang menceritakannya padaku melalui bukunya ‘Krakatau, Ketika Dunia Meledak, 27 Agustus 1883′.

Saat ini Gunung Anak Krakatau yang merupakan pecahan dari letusan Gunung Krakatau sedang menunjukkan aktivitasnya. Sejak akhir Oktober lalu, aktivitas Gunung Anak Krakatau mengalami beberapa kali letusan vulkanik A, vulkanik B, dan tremor (gempa terus-menerus). Pemprov Banten melalui Gubernur Banten Rt Atut Chosiyah pun sudah mengimbau masyarakat untuk waspada tapi tak perlu risau dengan kejadian ala mini. Masyarakat diminta untuk mendekati Gunung Anak Krakatau dalam radius 3 kilometer.

Bagi sebagian orang, letusan yang pada malam hari mengeluarkan pijar ini dianggap sebagai sebuah ancaman. Peristiwa tsunami di Nangroe Aceh Darussalam yang menelan korban hingga ratusan ribu jiwa menjadikan sebagian masyarakat trauma. Sehingga mereka juga kerap mengkhawatirkan, letusan Gunung Anak Krakatau itu bisa menjadi pertanda bakal datangnya tsunami.

Padahal pada sebagian masyarakat lainnya, terutama warga setempat, letusan yang terjadi di Gunung Anak Krakatau tersebut sebagai fenomena alam biasa. Bahkan mereka kerap penasaran untuk menyaksikan kejadian alam ini. Sehingga masyarakat sering begadang untuk melihat pijar yang keluar dari letusan anak Krakatau.

Ketakutan yang berlebihan pada aktivitas Gunung Anak Krakatau ini ternyata berdampak buruk pada dunia pariwisata di sepanjang Pantai Anyer hingga Pandeglang. Kabar meningkatnya aktivitas Gunung Anak Krakatau usai tsunami di Aceh pada Desember pada 2004, sempat meluluhlantakan dunia pariwisata yang terkenal dengan keindahan pantainya ini. Tingkat hunian hotel di kawasan wisata ini merosot hingga titik nadir yang mengkhawatirkan.
Turunnya kunjungan wisata ini tentu saja berdampak pada pendapatan ekonomi warga setempat yang menggantungkan penghidupannya pada pariwisata. Para pemandu wisata, pedagang, penyewa ban, pemilik penginapan, rumah makan, dan ragam jasa wisata lainnya nyaris mati suri akibat kekhawatiran terhadap aktivitas Gunung Anak Krakatau.
Tanpa berkehendak melawan kekuatan alam, kekhawatiran yang berlebihan ini seharusnya tak terjadi. Sudah berulangkali dikabarkan, hingga saat ini belum ada teknologi dan pengetahuan yang bisa memastikan kapan datangnya gempa yang bisa menimbulkan tsunami. Bencana itu bisa datang kapan saja dan di mana saja. Yang perlu dilakukan adalah kewaspadaan dan kesadaran masyarakat untuk bisa mengambil langkah cepat dalam mengantisipasi datangnya bencana.

gunung pinatubo

Letusan gunung Pinatubo tahun 1991.
Letusan gunung Pinatubo tahun 1991.
Gunung Pinatubo adalah sebuah stratovolcano aktif yang terletak di pulau Luzon, Filipina, di perbatasan provinsi Zambales, Tarlac, dan Pampanga. Gunung ini meletus pada tahun 1991, lebih dari 490 tahun setelah aktivitas erupsi yang terakhir kali terlihat,[1] yang merupakan letusan terbesar kedua[2] di abad ke-20. Prediksi atas letusan ini awalnya berhasi,l sehingga puluhan ribu orang mengungsi dari gunung ini dan menyelamatkan banyak jiwa. Tetapi daerah sekitar gunung tersebut hancur karena aliran piroklastik, abu dan lahar.

Gempa Lagi... Gempa Lagi...

Gempa, Tsunami, Banjir... Sepertinya tiga bencana itu masih mengancam negeri kita. Hari pertama di bulan Puasa, lagi-lagi gempa bumi mengagetkan kita. Gempa bumi dan Tsunami di Bengkulu, Jambi, Padang, dan kota-kota sekitarnya telah menggoreskan kepedihan dan makin memiriskan saudara-saudara kita yang mengalami trauma pasca bencana gempa beberapa tahun yang lalu.
Sejak tahun 2000 Bengkulu telah diguncang gempa secara bertubi-tubi. Setelah dua tahun lalu ke tiga rumah orang tua saya di Jogja rata dengan tanah, saya makin bisa merasakan penderitaan pasca gempa yang disarakan saudara-saudara kita. Hilangnya sanak keluarga yang dicinta, hilangnya pekerjaan, hilangnya tempat tinggal, hilangnya harta benda... dan lelahnya menanti janji-janji manis pemerintah yang tak kunjung terwujud...
Betapa lemahnya manusia, betapa harta tak berarti, betapa berharganya kesehatan kita. Saya semakin sadar... Dia bisa memanggil kita kapan saja, seperti Dia memanggil saudara-saudara kita yang kita cintai... tak peduli berapa usia kita.
Bencana memang memilukan, bencana memang menyedihkan... tapi kita tak bisa menghindar, hanya bisa bersiap jika bencana itu datang meghampiri kita. Bukan dengan harta benda... tapi dengan perbuatan mulia... Semoga kita bisa...

Arenal Volcano Costa Rica

The Arenal Volcano is the only volcano in Costa Rica constantly active since it woke up after 400 years with the big 1968 eruption producing huge ash columns, explosions & glowing red lava almost every day. It is considered one of the ten most active volcanoes in the world. This country is about beaches, rainforest and the spectacular Arenal.

Arenal Volcano

flood in bangladesh

Meteorologic floods are by far the most common of the types of floods in the human experience, affecting parts of the globe every year. Such floods can bring good, such as the fertile soils formerly brought to the Nile Delta by annual flooding. However, large floods are mostly known for their catastrophic loss of life and property, such as in China and Bangladesh which repeatedly devastated by floods - Bangladesh lost 300,000 people in November 1970 and more than 130,000 in April 1991, from cyclone-induced flooding, and the massive flooding of the Yangtze River in China in 1931 caused more than 3 million deaths with a further 2 million in 1959 from flooding and starvation.

The IPCC sees changing climate and floods as “the most widespread direct risk to human settlements..., driven by projected increases in rainfall intensity and, in coastal areas, sea-level rise. Riverine and coastal settlements are particularly at risk, but urban flooding could be a problem anywhere that storm drains, water supply, and waste management systems have inadequate capacity. Flood magnitude and frequency could increase in many regions as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which can increase runoff in most areas as well as groundwater recharge in some floodplains."

Bangladesh is a very low lying country, (only 3-7 feet in most parts). Climate change and floods exacerbated by global warming in the last few years has set in motion the rise in sea water levels. At the narrow north tip of the Bay of Bengal, tropical storms can whip up wind speeds to 140 mph sending waves(up to 26 feet tall)crashing into the coast. The shallow sea bed and the fact that water coming down from the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputa can not escape when the water level rises all conribute to the severe flooding of the Bangladesh coastline.

Bangladesh Flood 2004

Flooding causes more damage in the United States than any other severe weather related event, an average of $4.6 billion a year in the past 20 years (1984-2003). Flooding can occur in any of the 50 states or U.S. territories at anytime of the year.

A flood generally occurs with prolonged rainfall over several days, intense rainfall over a short period of time, or an ice or debris jam causes a river or stream to overflow and flood the surrounding area. Melting snow can combine with rain in the winter and early spring; severe thunderstorms can bring heavy rain in the spring and summer; or tropical cyclones can bring intense rainfall to the coastal and inland states in the summer and fall.

A flash floods occur within six hours of a rain event, or after a dam or levee failure, or following a sudden release of water held by an ice or debris jam, and flash floods can catch people unprepared. There is not always a warning that these deadly, sudden floods are coming, and the use of the word “flash” is synonymous with “urgent.”

"By 2025, half the world's population will be living in areas that are at risk from storms and other weather extremes," the World Water Council said, citing evidence gathered by U.N. and other experts. The economic cost of changes in climate and floods will be huge, especially for poor countries that are likely to bear the brunt of these events. The phrase Climate and Floods is something we will hear more of in the years ahead.

Melbourne flood - Elizabeth Street, February 1972

Picture shjowing Melbourne flood - Elizabeth Street, February 1972

prepare for flood


The fourth annual National Flood Safety Awareness Week runs March 17-21, 2008. National Weather Service offices throughout Montana are working together to provide information on why floods are a significant hazard in our state.

The goal of this campaign is to highlight some of the ways floods can occur…the hazards associated with floods...and what you can do to save your life and protect your property.

Flooding can occur anytime and anywhere in Montana. Floods can arrive within minutes or over a period of time. They can roll boulders the size of cars…destroy buildings and bridges…and take human lives.

Floods are one of the deadliest weather-related killer in the United States... second only to heat. Floods cause an average of 106 deaths per year in the United States. Over half of flood related deaths occur when people drive into flooded roadways or simply walk through moving water. Six inches of fast-moving water can knock you off your feet. A depth of 2 feet will float most vehicles...including sport utility vehicles. While most floods cannot be prevented...there are simple steps you can take to protect your life and property.

These are just a few flood safety tips that will be repeated throughout the week:

  • If flooding occurs…move to higher ground immediately.
  • Do not allow children to play near high water...storm drains or ditches. Hidden dangers often lie beneath the water.
  • Flooded roadways can have significant damage hidden by floodwaters. Never drive on a flooded road.
  • Do not camp or park your vehicle along streams or washes...particularly when threatening weather conditions exist.
  • Be especially cautious at night when it is harder to recognize flood dangers.

Selasa, 13 Mei 2008

myanmar cyclone

More than 22,000 people were reported dead and 41,000 more were missing after a cyclone tore through the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar late Friday night and early Saturday morning. Over 10 hours, winds traveling up to 150 miles per hour struck Yangon, Myanmar's largest city, and dumped 20 inches of rain on the harbortown, formerly known as Rangoon. According to published reports, the country's foreign minister fears the final death toll may rise as high as 50,000. That would make the storm -- Tropical Cyclone Nargis -- one of Myanmar's most deadly natural disasters and the second largest in the region after the tsunami of 2004, which took nearly 200,000 lives.

Nargis is a cyclone because it arose in the Indian Ocean. What differentiates cyclones from hurricanes and typhoons is where they arise. All are storms with wind speeds of more than 74 miles per hour. If one is born in the Atlantic Ocean or east of the international date line in the Pacific, it's called a hurricane; in the northwest Pacific, it's a typhoon; in the Southwest Pacific and Southeastern Indian Ocean, it becomes a severe tropical cyclone; in the north Indian, it's a severe cyclonic storm; and in the southwest Indian, it is referred to as a tropical cyclone. They can carry as much energy as 10,000 nuclear bombs—making them nature's most destructive storms. These storms typically begin to crop up in the Northern hemisphere around this time of year, as ocean waters warm. Nowadays, there is a raging debate over whether climate change, and the overall rise in global temperature it is supposed to bring, will cause tropical cyclones to develop more often and become more powerful in the future.

cathrina cyclone

Image:Cyclone Catarina from the ISS on March 26 2004.JPG


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Badai matahari terbentuk karena terjadinya gejolak di atmosfer matahari yang dipicu terbentuknya bintik hitam. Kondisi ini dapat mengakibatkan loncatan api / solar flare yang materinya dapat terlontar ke Bumi. Ketika materi tersebut melintas di atmosfer Bumi, maka terjadilah Aurora dan badai elektromagnetik.

Partikel dari badai Matahari tersebut diperkiran sampai ke Bumi pada tahun 2011-2012. Partikel bermuatan listrik ini dapat menghasilkan noise atau gangguan besar pada frekuensi radio 1,2GHz - 1,6GHz. Ini sangat mengancam sinyal GPS.

“Jumlah dan intensitas noise akan meningkat dan dapat mengaburkan sinyal GPS selama periode ini,” kata Paul Kintner dari Departemen Teknik Elektro Universitas Cornell. Keakuratan GPS akan berkurang hingga 90%, dan dapat rusak. Hal ini sangat membahayakan dunia penerbangan, di mana fungsi GPS sudah seperti “nafas pada Manusia.

Hal ini pernah terjadi beberapa tahun silam, tepatnya pada akhir oktober 2003. Pada waktu itu, tidak hanya satelit GPS saja yang rusak, tapi juga satelit komunikasi publik.

Namun, yang paling bahaya adalah apabila distribusi listrik terganggu…! Pada 28-30 Oktober 2003, hampir seluruh pembangkit listrik di dunia dinonaktifkan untuk sementara. Apabila listrik tidak dimatikan, maka akan terjadi kerusakan pada pembangkit-pembangkit listrik di setiap negara. Hal ini disebabkan karena terjadinya ketidakstabilan medan magnet di Bumi.

tsunami IN HAWAII

Tsunami in Hilo, Hawaii - click for full sizeThe word "tsunami" is actually a Japanese word. The first part, tsu, means harbor and nami means wave. So, in its original usage, tsunami meant a harbor wave. However, the term is now used to refer to waves caused by seismic (earthquake) or volcanic activity in or near the ocean floor. When there is an undersea disturbance, waves form and travel away from the center of the disturbance kind of like when you throw a rock in a pond. These waves can travel as fast as 450 miles per hour. Deep in the ocean, tsunami can pass undetected under ships. However, as they approach land, the water becomes more shallow and they rise up and crash on the shore. Tsunami can be very dangerous. They can damage or destroy coastal towns and villages. (Note: In the image above, notice the man on the left. The photo was taken in April 1946 in Hilo, Hawaii. Click the image for a full size photo.)

Most tsunami are caused by earthquakes with epicenters near or on the ocean floor. Not all earthquakes generate tsunami and some tsunami can be small and cause little or no damage. Because of this, people and surfers sometimes go to the beach when there is a tsunami warning. This is not a good idea because it is difficult to know when tsunami will be small and when they will be deadly. It usually takes an earthquake greater than 7.5 on the Richter scale to produce dangerous tsunami. Click here for a tsunami animation (you will need MPEG viewing software).

Sometimes people use the words tidal wave and tsunami to mean the same thing. However, the two are not related. While tsunami refers to dangerous waves caused by underwater disturbances, tidal waves are simply the crest of tides as they travel around the Earth. Tsunami have nothing to do with tides.


Although a tsunami does not look like in the picture below, it helps you to gain an idea about the destructive power of a tsunami.

Tsunami Power


Dust storm 'Tsunami' wave

1/2 a second before tsunami

The last picture! There are people who believe in God, there are others who don't believe, but we must understand that we are small when nature hits...

This picture was taken on the banks of Sumatra Island (the height of waves was of approx. 32 m = 105 ft). It was found saved in a digital camera, 1 1/2 years after the disaster.

We cannot know for sure, but very likely the one who took the picture is not alive any more (it was just a matter of seconds). Today we can see the last image he/ she saw before ending life on Earth!


Hurricane Katrina bears down on the Gulf Coast
You know the saying: “hindsight is the best foresight.” When it comes to handling public health disasters, we can only hope that prior failures and shortcomings of the system – the aftermath of Katrina, for example – will serve as a valuable lesson for the future.

What would happen if a contagious disease spread across the United States, or a deadly toxin were released into the population? Would the government and medical community be able to spring into action quickly and coherently, or would they be fumbling in the dark, leaving millions of people without immediate and proper care? Should we be worried about our nation’s readiness to deal with disasters swiftly and effectively?

The question is not superfluous.

“When it comes to pandemics, we are overdue. And, we are under-prepared,” Health and Human Services Secretary Michael Leavitt warned last year.

HHS Secretary Michael Leavitt

He went on to deliver a frightening prediction: if we were to have an outbreak today comparable to the 1918 influenza pandemic, 90 million Americans would get ill; 45 million would become sick enough to require serious medical treatment, and roughly two million would die.

An obvious frustration of preparing for possible disasters, Secretary Leavitt added, is that “anything we say in advance feels alarmist, but anything we do once a pandemic starts seems inadequate.”

The good news is that some inroads are made all the time by health officials and the government in bolstering our preparedness to handle public health disasters. For example, a survey released last fall by the National Association of County and City Health officials shows that 90% of the nation’s 2,800 local health departments have consolidated their disaster planning and ability to respond.

On the medication front, just this month, the Food and Drug Administration granted Fast Track designation – which expedites the development and review of drugs intended for the treatment of life-threatening conditions — to BioThrax, which would treat, in conjunction with antibiotics, the outbreak of anthrax infections. And 16 manufacturers from 10 countries are currently in the process of developing prototype pandemic influenza vaccines against the H5N1 variant of the deadly bird flu virus, while five are also developing vaccines against other virus strains

It is a small step considering plethora of possible toxins that could be unleashed, but it is a stride forward nevertheless.

Also this month, the administration released a new budget, which proposes, for the year starting in October 2008, $1.2 billion in new funds for pandemic preparedness, which includes $870 million to develop a pandemic vaccine.

Bioterrorism spending would increase by $143 million to $4.3 billion, including $154 million for the training of medical emergency response teams, as well as $135 million for the Strategic National Stockpile, the large quantity of perpetually rotated antibiotics, antidotes and other vital medications that Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains for predictable health threats.

That’s the good news. The not-so-good news is that while one hand giveth, the other one taketh away.

Public heath experts point out that while some disaster preparedness funding would get a boost, other essential programs would get the boot. Trust for America’s Health (TFAH), a non-profit health advocacy group, says the budget cuts of $185 million from the funds earmarked for improving state and local preparedness capabilities would plunge grass-roots first-response institutions 25% below 2005 levels.

“We are cutting core support for emergency disaster response,” said Richard Hamburg, TFAH’s director of government relations, “leaving the country at unnecessary levels of risk.”

At the end of the day, the question is whether our government and health system could step up to the plate in a harmonized and efficient manner.

“While we have taken steps in the right direction, our level of preparedness remains a work in progress,” Frank J. Ciluffo, director of Homeland Security Policy Institute at George Washington University told the Senate last year. “It is not yet where it needs to be.”


Disaster A team of three companies, led by DynCorp International Inc., won a five-year, $450 million contract from the Naval Facilities Engineering Command to deliver global disaster response services.

DynCorp International’s team includes Parsons Global Services Inc., Pasadena, Calif., and PWC Logistics, Safat, Kuwait. The three companies won the award under the banner of Contingency Response Services LLC, their partnership group.

The Navy will use the contract to obtain services via individual tasks in response to natural disasters, humanitarian efforts, and interim or transitional base operating needs.


The Director of Disaster Services for the Town of Hanna is responsible for maintaining and implementing Hanna’s Municipal Emergency Plan. This Master Plan is designed to aid the Disaster Services Agency in responding to any man made or natural disasters that may overwhelm the resources of regular day-to- day operations in our community.
The Disaster Services Agency is comprised of representatives from local industry, education, health agencies, first responder agencies (FIRE, EMS, RCMP, etc.), Non-Government Organization’s, Non-Profit Organization's, the Town, (Public Works, FCSS) as well as surrounding communities through mutual aid agreements.
Major emergencies such as severe weather (tornadoes, blizzards, etc.), explosions, major fires, dangerous or hazardous goods spills, pandemics and even acts of terrorism would be dealt with by this comprehensive agency.
Hanna’s Town Council appoints a Disaster Services Committee to oversee the Disaster Services Agency. This committee is comprised of the Mayor and two appointed Council members and is responsible for setting policy and dealing with budget issues.
The Town also has a Director of Disaster Social Services who oversees the Disaster Social Services Emergency Plan, which is an annex to the Municipal Emergency Plan. This plan primarily deals with issues associated with the “people and pets” aspect of a major emergency or disaster where, for example, events such as evacuation of ones home might become necessary.
The Government of Alberta through its primary agency, Emergency Management Alberta, sets out the rules and guide lines for all communities and municipality’s when it comes to major emergencies or disasters in the Province. It aids each community in preparing it’s Municipal Emergency Plan, provides resources for training through grant programs and also provides and manages disaster recovery grant programs.

american red cross

If you live within our coverage area (see map in “About Us” section), it is likely that the local Red Cross Disaster Team responded to the disaster incident to provide emergency assistance to you and others affected by the disaster. In the event that the Red Cross was not called to the disaster scene, and you need emergency assistance immediately following a disaster, please call the number above. If you live outside of the Cincinnati Area Chapter coverage area, please contact your local Red Cross chapter. Find your local Red Cross Chapter

Disasters requiring a Red Cross response are defined as “Any single event that makes a person’s home unliveable” including natural disasters and some man-made disasters such as hazardous materials spills. Following a disaster, if you need emergency assistance, the Cincinnati Area Chapter of the American Red Cross may be able to assist you.

earth quake

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